Renewed understanding of Herzl’s vision, can help us apply his principles BROADLY

Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland (Wikemedia Commons)

Is it possible that Theodor Herzl researchers misunderstood a crucial aspect of the Jewish state visionary, and hence of Zionism? And can renewed understanding of Herzl help defuse contemporary issues ranging from the Palestinian issue to Israeli politics?

The apparent misperception stems from an article Herzl wrote in 1894 about the Alexandre Dumas play called the Wife of Claude. Herzl mocked the idea in the play of Jews returning to their ancestral land. 
“The Jews have nothing to do anymore with the historic homeland,” Herzl wrote. “It would be childish to go looking for its geographic location; any schoolboy knows where to find it. But if the Jews were ever really to return, they would discover the very next morning that they had long ago ceased to be one people.” 

Therefore, the conventional wisdom in academia and Zionism research has been that Herzl, in October 1894, was not a Zionist. He then made a radical switch, which some attribute to the December 1894 trial of Alfred Dreyfus.

Yet, a closer read of Herzl’s words, cross-referenced with his other writing, shows that contrary to researchers’ perception, Herzl’s views had been steady: He argued that the dominant characteristic of Jews during his time (Judaism 2.0) is not being an organic “one people,” but rather their reaction to European opposition. As Herzl wrote in that same article: “For centuries they have been rooted in diverse nationalities, different from one another, their similarities maintained only as a result of outside pressure.”

A few months later, in July 1895, already in midst of his Zionist thinking, Herzl tells Nordau something similar: “Only antisemitism turned us into Jews.” Jews might have similarities, such as observing Shabbat and celebrating Jewish holidays, but these are secondary relative to similarities “as a result of outside pressure.”After all, these pressures determine where Jews live, their professions, how many children they have, and mostly define the Jewish character. 

“We are what the ghetto made us,” Herzl writes. He even explains to Vienna’s chief rabbi in August 1895 that “antisemitism contains the divine will to make good, because it forces us together, its pressure unites us.”
And so, if the Jews go back home, those pressures that define and unite the Jews would no longer exist and hence “they would discover the very next morning that they long ago ceased to be one people.” 

This is why a prerequisite to such a return is replacing Judaism’s defining feature of European persecution that “turned us into Jews” with an ideological, political and diplomatic infrastructure of Judaism, and that is Zionism (Judaism 3.0).

Herzl’s Zionism – contrary to popular misperception – is not about Jews moving to their ancestral land. “It would be childish to go looking for its geographic location; any schoolboy knows where to find it.” When Herzl writes that in Basel he founded the Jewish state, he clarifies: “A territory is merely the concrete basis. The state itself, when it possesses a territory, still remains something abstract.” So much so, that Herzl was opposed to unplanned “aliyah”; he makes clear that immigration is a tool, not the essence.

The essence is the transformation of Judaism, and as argued in this column and in my book, Herzl’s vision is now coming to fruition in the 2020s – Zionism is becoming the anchor of Judaism.

Researchers not only seemed to have misunderstood Herzl’s words but also missed the defining Herzl principle implicit in them: One can neither build a nation nor a sustainable movement based on the negative. Herzl highlighted in that same article the universal aspect of his principle: “All oppressed people have Jewish characteristics, and when the pressure lifts, they behave like free men.” Indeed, this Herzl principle can be applied to today’s circumstances.

Herzl to the aid of Palestinians

The European promotion and massive  funding of a single Palestinian ethos – “occupationalism” – led to the obliteration of any traces of organic Palestinian ethos.

Palestinians are now defined exclusively through the occupation and their conflict with Israel. Palestinian individual interests are sacrificed for that ethos by the outside, such as through aggressive European campaigns to sabotage Palestinians’ employment and mentorship in Jewish-owned businesses (for example, pressure on SodaStream to move its operations out of the territories; the EU requirement to label products that are made in the West Bank). 

In addition, the Palestinian Authority’s budget is dependent on conflict-related grants. Therefore, the end of the conflict could mean the end of Palestinianism. To put it in Herzl’s words, if the occupation would end, Palestinians would discover the next morning that they are not one people.

Herzl’s applied advice: “We need rest from Europe, its wars and its social complications.” This way Palestinians can regain their true character and pave a path to peace.

Herzl to the aid of the Israeli Left

Similar Herzl frameworks can be applied to domestic Israeli politics. As Zionism exited from Herzl’s mind into a mass movement, parties emerged offering various Zionist ideologies. The one that took control in the 1930s and stayed in power till 1977 was the Ben-Gurion-led left-wing block (Labor and related parties). 
Since 1977, however, it repeatedly lost elections, with few exceptions. This frustration led the block to abandon positive ideology and reposition itself exclusively through the negative: being the “non-Bibi.” So much so that the government formed in 2021 was self-labeled “the change government” – the only thing in common was the removal of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

Consistent with Herzl’s principle, when the Left arrived at the “Promised Land,” the lack of ideological commonality led to the quick dissolution of the “change government.” Just as Herzl transformed Judaism from being reactionary, some in the Israeli Left feel it is time to abandon the obsession with Benjamin Netanyahu (or Menachem Begin or Likud), and transform the Left. (See my foreign policy article: Netanyahu might be the best hope for Israel’s Center-Left)

Herzl as a resource to understand the Torah

Understanding this Herzl principle can even shed new light on the Exodus from Egypt. Its essence, according to Herzl, was not aliyah – that was a tool. Instead, he argued, it was “education through migration.”

Indeed, an existential threat emerged once the Hebrews arrived in the Promised Land. Being defined as “the nation that left Egypt,” as labeled by the King of Moab, the Hebrews were akin to the Jews in The Wife of Claude – just as today’s Palestinians and Israeli Left will lack a uniting narrative once pressures are lifted. Indeed, the motto was “each man does what is right in his eyes.”

However, the nation transformed. A uniting narrative anchored in the kingdom and the Temple (Judaism 1.0) replaced the unity of Egyptian pressures. This enabled Jewish survivability, just like Zionism – that “infinite ideal” that Herzl labeled as the return to Judaism, even before the return to the land of the Jews – does today.■

The writer is the author of Judaism 3.0: Judaism’s Transformation to Zionism ( For his geopolitical articles, visit: For his articles linking topics in the weekly Torah portion to Herzl, visit:

From Exodus to Leviticus – Herzl’s journey’s blessing
The book of Exodus ends as the Tabernacle is built and the Godly presence enters. Those last verses of Exodus instill a principle that is often missed: When there is Godly presence we stay, but when that presence is gone, we are obliged to go on a journey to seek it. In that spirit, Herzl wrote one last article in his final days: “Journey’s Blessings”, reiterating that Zionism, that abstract Tabernacle, will continue being a dynamic “infinite ideal” even after we are home – because Zionism is “not just the aspiration to the Promised Land… but also the aspiration to moral and spiritual completion.”


Related articles by Gol Kalev:

Netanyahu might be the best hope for Israel’s Center-Left (Foreign Policy)

Israel’s left must accept that the pre-1977 era is not coming back and it needs to execute its agenda based on current political realities, not wishful thinking. This means that Netanyahu might be the left’s best hope. Joining his government is certainly much better for the left than a far-right alternative.

Occuptionalism: The new form of Colonialism is hijacking the Palestinian cause (Jerusalem Post)   

Over the last 20 years, European governments and other Western sources have invested billions of dollars to nurture the Palestinian plight and turn it into what by now has become an autonomous movement with little to do with the Palestinians’ own interests and realities on the ground.

Passover as Jewish particularity (Jerusalem Post)

Herzl created a new anchor for Judaism, having concluded that the primary malaise of 2,000 years of exile was not the persecution, but rather the lack of unified Jewish political leadership

The essence of the exodus from Egypt and from Europe (Jerusalem Post)

The exodus from Egypt and the one from Europe 3,000 years later are so similar that biblical critics in the far future might argue that they were on and the same

Zionism as the anchor of Judaism (Jerusalem Post Special Magazine)

Whether one likes it or not, Zionism is becoming the organizing principle of the Jewish nation-religion. It is the primary conduit through which both Jews and non-Jews relate to Judaism, whether positively or negatively. It is the one aspect of Judaism that evokes emotions, passion, anger, pride and engagement.

Related video:

Gol Kalev at the Jerusalem Leaders Leaders Summit: Judaism 3.0 as a paradigm shift in the battle against anti-Zionism

Judaism 3.0 – Judaism’s Tranformation to Zionism (Mazo Publishers, 2022)

The October 14, 2022 cover of the Jerusaelm Post Magazine – exploring the thesis of Gol Kalev’s new book, Judaism 3.0 – Judaism’s Transformation to Zionism – over the background of the Jerusalem Post on May 16, 1948

The following is a Jeruslaem Post series about the implications of Judaism 3.0:

This generation’s existential threat to Judaism

Applying Herzl’s thinking to counter Israel-bashing

 Occuptionalism: The new form of Colonialism is hijacking the Palestinian cause   

Occupationalism is enabled by the Jerusalem-based “Conflict Industry,” known for its lavish parties, insularity, high turnover and its own social hierarchy

European blood libels continue, but now there is a solution

Recognizing that we are in Judaism 3.0 would address existential threats to Judaism, but it would also provide Jewish clarity that would advance humanity

Judaism 3.0: Turning threats to Judaism into enablers of its survival

Like antisemitism in Herzl’s time, today’s Israel-bashing and assimilation of American Jewry also have hidden assets in them

Passover to Shavuot and the American-European divide

How the transition affects today’s geopolitics, the flaws of democracies and the emerging rift: Americanism vs. Europeanism

Threat to Judaism through friends, influenced by Israel-bashing movement

Applying Herzl’s thinking, the threat to Judaism might come through our friends. Such Israel-bashing-light was showcased in the Basel Zionism celebrations in 2022

Paving path to peace

A broad recognition of Judaism 3.0 would release the Arabs of the Middle-east from debilitating European dogmas that have occupied their true character for the last 100 years

See in Link: Applying Judaism 3.0 to the countering Israel-Bashing

See also The Jerusaelm Report 2022 New Year Magazine: Judaism’s transformation to Zionism – Countering the Israel-bashing movement

Recognizing that Judaism has transformed would rob the Israel-bashers of their starting point: The premise that Judaism is merely a religion.

Summary of above articles:

Gol Kalev shows how Israel-bashing is today’s existential threat to Judaism, having both a populous dogmatic retail component – Occupationalism, and institutional destruction mechanisms that deploy modern-day blood-libels. In such circumstances, Hasbara (Israeli PR) is futile. Yet, a broad global recognition that Judaism has transformed to Judaism 3.0, and Zionism is now its anchor, would dramatically mitigate the threat.

Taking it a step deeper, Gol then explores the depth of the existential threat by showing how the break from centuries old system of Divine-right-monarchy, created a bifurcation: Divine-right-republic in the United States and non-Divine neo-monarchy in Europe. Deploying Herzl’s political philosophy and his view of the inseparability of corruption from parliamentary Democracy, Gol demonstrates the imbedded danger of a system of “following laws” as opposed to doing so alongside an ideological Divine conscienceless: Passover to Shavuot and the American-European Divide

Gol then shows how Israel-bashers must stay in Judaism 2.0. A broad global recognition that Zionism is now the anchor of Judaism would rob Israel-bashers of their starting point, and would emancipate Palestinians and other Middle-Eastern Arabs from the debilitating European Occupation of their true character, which in turn would lead to peace: Paving the path to peace

For more of Gol’s geopolitical articles: Europe and Jerusalem


Europe should benefit from Herzl’s vision

Europeanism vs. Americanism – a new global philosophical divide?

Judaism 3.0 as a cornerstone of the Biden administration’s efforts to counter antisemitism

GOL’S BOOK is NOW AVAILABLE oN AMAZON AND in stores in israel and the united states

Watch recap and video-clips from the book’s launch party: A revolutionary approach to countering Israel-bashing

Judaism 3.0: Judaism’s Transformation to Zionism – Launched March 7, 2022

Gol Kalev discusses his thoughts from participating in the 125th anniversary of the First Zionist Congress – clip from Episode 3 of the Brazil Jewish Academy course – Applying Herzl.
Sign-up to get updates on the book’s launch events:


The battle for Europe

The resurfacing of European Colonialism

Hijacking the Palestinian cause

European opposition to the Jewish state

Time for a new European peace conference

Europe should benefit from Herzl’s vision

For inquiries/comments:

Watch Gol discuss his new book in an i24 interview